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Basic Information for mobile repairing for beginners

Hello, I have come back again after many days with this very interesting, knowledgeable and important article only for you. Today, We are going to discuss about the history of mobile phone, parts and components, power section, Problem and solution, Mobile repairing tools, Mobile software solution. Some institute provides you mobile repairing courses in certain amount. There are so many mobile shopkeeper in your place who manipulates you for mobile repairing.

Guys, this article is very important for you if you want to know about basic mobile repairing tips. Because, this article for those people who wants to learn mobile repairing from basic to higher level free. This article helps you to grow your knowledge about the internal parts of mobile phone.

People who don’t know anything about mobile repairing. At least, they should know about basic mobile repairing tips. So, we start our mobile repairing course from beginning with some points-

Some basic knowledge of mobile repairing-

1. History of mobile phones
2. Features
3. SIM card
4. Multi-Card hybrid phones
5. Kosher phones
6. Mobile phone operators
7. Manufacturers
8. Evolution of future
9. Important terms for mobile repairing

1. History of Mobile phones-

We are not focused broadly on the history of mobile phones. Because, we learn here mobile repairing. But, we are giving you little bit information about the history of mobile phones.

John F. Mitchell and Dr. Martin Cooper was introduced first handheld phone in 1973 by Motorola. This phone weight approx. 4.4 pounds. In 1984, the Motorola DynaTAC 8000x available commercially. A few descriptions can be science fiction novel Space cadet by Robert Heinlein in 1948. The protaganist, who has just traveled to Colorado from his home in Lowa, receives a call from his father on a telephone in his pocket. Before leaving for earth orbit, he decides to ship the telephone home “Since it was limited by its short range in the neighborhood of an earth-side [i.e terrestrial] relay office.”


Early to mid – Little bit history information. 1980s mobile phones were the first generation (1G) phones. This first generation used analog technology.

In 1991, radiolinja was launched digital cellular technology in Finland on the basis of the GSM standard. This era of mobile phone is called second generation 2G in mobile phone.

In 2001, the third generation (3G) was launched in Japan by NTT Docomo on the basis of WCDMA standard. This was followed by 3G, 3.5G or turbo 3G enhancements based on High Speed packet access (HSPA) family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. 3G provides you with many facilities like streaming media.


2. Features-

Basically, all mobile phones have common features make calls and send & receive the message. But, features differ from mobile to mobile. All mobile features depend on their manufacturers. Manufactures try to make mobile phones attractive, with more exciting features according to customers’ requirements.

All basic components found on mobile phones you must know these terms of mobile repairing:

  • For providing a power source for mobile phone need a BATTERY.
  •  To give input to the mobile phones needs a KEYPAD. But now most smartphones are having touch screens.
  • To see the output of the input need a DISPLAY.
  • All GSM phones having a SIM card for receiving network and communication between the mobile phone.
  • Some phones having CDMA. It’s similar as GSM. And its having similar card called R-UIM.
  • All phones uniquely identified by IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) number.

Handsets with more advanced computing ability, facility and most advanced software application. This type of phone is called smartphone. The knowledge of the basic component of the phone must important for mobile repairing.

SIM CARD (Subscriber Identification Module) – SIM card is small microchip. It’s used in GSM feature phones. The SIM card stores IMSI and Ki very securely. IMSI and Ki used to identify and authenticate the user of the mobile phone. Sim card allows users to change SIM card from one phone to another phone. In 1991, First SIM card makes by Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient for the Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja. Most of the people know about this. This is also the most important for mobile repairing.

Multi-Card hybrid phones – A multi-card hybrid phone can hold two to four SIM cards. This type of phone having GSM (SIM) and CDMA (R-UIM) slots. It’s necessary for mobile repairing.

Important terms you must know learn for mobile repairing-

Important and most basic terms for mobile repairing are given below:

  • 1G: 1st Generation Mobile phone
  •  2G: 2nd Generation Mobile phone
  •  3G: 3rd Generation Mobile phone
  •  4G: 4th Generation Mobile phone
  •  AC: Alternate Current
  •  BGA: Ball Grid Array
  •  BSI: Battery Status Indicator
  •  CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
  •  CPU: Central Processing Unit
  •  DCT: Digital Core Technology
  •  DC: Direct Current
  •  GSM: Global System for mobile communication
  •  IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identity
  •  IC: Integrated Circuit
  •  LED: Light emitting diode
  •  PDA: Personal Digital Assistant
  •  PFO: Power Frequency Oscillator
  •  PCB: Printed Circuit board
  •  RAM: Random Access Memory
  •  RF: Radio Frequency
  •  ROM: Read Only Memory
  •  RTC: Real Time Clock
  •  RX: Receive/Receiver (Receiving Section)
  •  SMD: Surface Mount Device
  •  TX: Transmit (Transmitting Section)
  •  UEM: Universal Energy Manager
  •  VCO: Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

So, after knowing some important terms for mobile repairing which is used in mobile phones. We know about card Level parts of a mobile cell phone.

Card Level Parts of a mobile For mobile repairing

Basically, it’s divided into three parts-

1. Front Face – This is the front part of the mobile phone. Its the front cover of the mobile phone.

2. Back Face- This is the back cover of the mobile phone. Covers the back part of the mobile phone, we use this face.

3. Internal Facia or Facial- This covers the internal part of the mobile phone. It supports the middle part of the phone.

Knowledge of the face is also necessary for mobile repairing.

Small components of the mobile phone which is important for mobile repairing

All small components which give many problems with your phone and basic part for mobile repairing-

Ringer – This part of the mobile phone is also called loudspeaker. Its used to play music.

Speaker (Earpiece) – Speaker is used for listening sound during the phone call. The Loudspeaker is not ON at this time. Its sound output device.

Microphone (Mic) – Microphone transmits sound during the phone call. The Microphone is a sound input device.

Vibrator – Vibrator is used for creating vibration in mobile phone. Mobile phone vibrates, if its in vibration mode.

LED (Light Emitting Diode) – LED is used to produce light in mobile phone.

Charging Connector – Charging connector connects the charger to the PCB of mobile phone.

Earphone Connector – Earphone connector connects the headphone to mobile phone VIA Jack.

Data Cable Connector – To connect the mobile phone to other devices like laptop, computer, USB etc.

Battery Connector – It connects the battery to the PCB of mobile phone with the help of circuits.

Battery – Battery supplies the power to the mobile phone.

SIM Card Connector – It connects the SIM card to the PCB of the mobile phone.

Memory Card Connector – We know that memory card is used for saves the data. Various types of memory card available such as 1GB, 2GB, 4GB, 8GB etc.

Camera Connector – We know that Camera is used for to capture pictures and videos. Camera connector is used for to connect the camera to the PCB of the mobile phone.

Keypad Button – Keypad button is used for connecting the keypad carbon to any type of work such as phone calls, messaging etc.

Keypad Carbon – Keypad carbon connects the Keypad button of the mobile phone to the PCB. Its present as DDDDDDDDD.

Keypad connector – It connects the keypad to the PCB of the mobile phone.

ON/OFF button – Every mobile phone has ON/OFF button. It’s used to start and shut down the mobile phone.

Display Connector – Display connector is used to connect the display of the mobile phone to the PCB of the mobile phone.

Antenna – To catch the frequency of the network.

PCB (Printed Circuit Board) – It’s one of the most important part of the mobile phone. Various types of connector connects with PCB with the suitable connector.

Antenna Point – A point in which antenna is connected to the PCB board is called the antenna point. The Antenna point is located in the top of the PCB.


Network Section is the important part of mobile repairing

It’s also important for mobile repairing which is located below the antenna point is called Network Section.

Antenna Switch – Antenna Switch is located in the network section of the mobile phone. It’s having 16 legs and made from metal and non-metal. GSM phones having an antenna switch that’s color is white metal. CDMA phones having an antenna switch that’s color is golden metal. It specially used in the mobile phone for searching the network and tuned the network before passing the network. When, the mobile is not having network means that all mobile functions are doing work properly. But, mobile phone doesn’t shows the network. Its fault of the antenna switch.

PFO (Power Frequency Oscillator) – PFO located in the power section, besides the antenna switch. PFO is also known as Band Pass Filter and P.A. (Power Amplifier). PFO is used for amplifies and filters the network frequency. And it’s also used for selecting the home network. PFO faults also affect the network of the mobile phone. The Mobile phone doesn’t network properly. If PFO gets short, then the situation is very critical and the phone is dead.

RF IC/ Network IC – RF IC is found in the power section of the mobile phone. It’s also called the RF signal processor. Specially, it’s used as a receiver and transmitter of radio and video waves. It accepts the instructions suitability of the CPU means that according to the CPU. Its faults same as PFO faults.

26 MHz Crystal Oscillator – Its creates proper frequency during the outgoing calls. It’s made up of metal. When its having any type of fault. We are not able to make any outgoing calls.

RX Filter – RX Filter is used for filters, frequency during incoming calls. If faults occur in the RX filter. Then, it shows network problem during the incoming calls. Because, its not filters, frequency properly during incoming calls.

TX Filter – TX filter is used for filter frequency during the outgoing calls. TX filter fault, occurs problem during the outgoing call. Because, when a fault occurs its not filters frequency properly.

ROM (Read Only Memory) – It’s located in the power section of the mobile phone. The ROM is specially used in loading program in a mobile phone. ROM fault occurs the software problem in the mobile phone.

RAM (Read Access Memory) – It’s also located in the power section of the mobile phone. It’s specially used for sends and receives the instruction and load program. And performs the operation dynamically. When, any type of faults occurs in the RAM. It’s also effect the software on the mobile phone. Sometimes, the mobile phone is hanged. Because, the RAM is full from processes.

VCO – VCO creates proper frequency according to the CPU. It used for sending date, voltage and time to the RF IC/ HANGER and CPU. If  VCO occurs some type of faults. Then, no network on the mobile phone. And When you do call mobile phone displays “Call Failed” and “Call End” again and again.

Network IC – Network IC located below the PFO and antenna switch. In some mobile phones, antenna switch is merged with the PFO. And N/W IC merged with the CPU.

Network section is important for talking and network surfing.

Power Section is the next important part for mobile repairing-

As we know that without a power phone is nothing. Power section is the most important part for mobile repairing.

Power IC – Various capacitors in power section are called Power IC. Some cell phone having one or more than one power IC and Capacitor color is brown. Power IC specially cares for the management of power. It takes power from the Battery and sends the power to various needy parts of the mobile phone. The phone is to be dead from POWER IC fault.

CPU (Central Processing Unit) – CPU id the large IC of the mobile phone which is located in the power section. Some cell phone having one or two CPU. Basically, CPU gives the speed for processes of the mobile phone. It makes mobile faster. The CPU controls all the section of mobile phone. Any type of faults occurs in the CPU. Then, the phone will be dead. The CPU is the most important and most sensitive parts of the mobile phone.

Flash IC – Flash IC located beside of the CPU. Software on the mobile phone is installed in this IC. If faults occur in the Flash IC. Then, phone is not working properly. Hotchpotch situation occurs on the phone.

Logic IC – A 20 legs IC is called Logic IC. It’s also called UI IC and interface IC. Logic IC controls vibrator, ringer and LED. Any type of fault occurs in logic IC / UI IC. Vibrator, ringer and LED of the smartphone will not work properly.

Charging IC – Charging IC is located in the power section. Its beside the R22. Mobile charges with the help of charging IC. It takes the charge (Current) from charge sources. The Battery of the phone doesn’t receive charge from power source. When, Charging IC fault occurs.

Audio IC – Audio IC located besides the POWER IC. It’s used for audio. It controls the microphone and speaker of the phone. Any type of faults occurs in the Audio IC. Microphone and speaker will not work in a proper manner.

RTC (Real Time Clock) – It’s used to run the time and date in the mobile phone. It is continuously running on mobile phones for present time and date. If any type of fault occurs in the RTC. Then, the mobile phone would not show time and date.

Coil – Different shapes and of Coil is found in many sections of the mobile phone. Binding of copper wire inside the coil. There are two color combination in coils-

  1.  Blue & White
  2.  Black & White

Coil filters and decreases voltage and current.

Electrolytic Capacitor and Non-Electrolytic Capacitor – Basically, there are two types of capacitor  Electrolyte capacitor and Non-electrolytic capacitor. Non-electrolytic capacitor has no positive or negative.

Non-electrolytic capacitor- This capacitor found in three colors gray, brown and yellow. Non-electrolytic capacitor filters the DC current.

Electrolytic capacitor- its having positive and negative nodes. It stores and filters the current. It’s larger than Non-electrolytic capacitor. It’s available in two colors

1- Black and white strip
2- Orange and Brown strip

Network Capacitor – Network capacitor is a combination of one or more non electrolytic capacitor. It’s also used for filters the network. A word coupler is used in the network section. The Coupler is an electronic component. The Coupler is available in two different types of color black & white.

Rectifier Diode – Rectifier diode is used to convert the AC current into the DC current.  When, any type of error in the coupler. Then, the Network does not show on the mobile phone.

You can Follow us on YOUTUBE for watching practical. If you have any doubt in this mobile repairing tips. Then you can ask. Definitely, we will help you.

About Snehil Shrivastava

Howdy, This's Snehil. And I really love the Computer Science Universe. Now, I'm snooping around that universe. And I'm here to stick the Technology, How To's, Tips & Tricks, Android and much more etc.

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  • Thanush K

    Hello Sir, Very helpful basics, thank you very much.
    I wish to know how to identify these ICs and also how to find if the fault is in these ICs